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Welded Electrodes

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Welded Electrodes

are used in the metal arc welding.

Welded electrodes - are one of the most widespread and popular welded material that is included in the circuit for electric current suppling to the welded parts. 

Welded electrodes are devided into:
- coated welded electrodes - electrode in which metal rod has a coating of powdered materials that are hold together by gluing solution improving the quality of welding.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
- uncoated welded electrodes - metal rods without coating.


Depending on the coating electrodes can be ntioned:
- electrodes with thin coating
- electrodes with average coating
- electrodes with thick coating

Coated welded electrodes are produced in two ways:
- hydrotesting
- dipping

The main classification of electrode coatings:
- Stabilising coatings represent the materials containing the elements that ionize welding arc. The coating is put by thin layer on the electrode rod (electrodes with thin coating), intended for manual arc welding.
- Protective coatings represent mechanical mixture of different materials that protect the molten metal frm air influence, stabilize arcing, alloy and refine metal of the seam.
- Magnetic coatings are also used. They are put on the wire in the process of welding by electromagnetic forces generated between electrode wire under current and ferromagnetic powder, located in the bunker through which electrode wire passes during semi-automatic or automatic welding.

The main kinds of electrode coatings:
- electrode coatings contain oxides of iron and manganese, silica, large number of ferromanganese; in order to create gas protection of the welding zone organic materials (cellulose, wood flour, starch etc) are put in the coating. 
- Rutile electrode coatings are widely used in connection with the development of rutile mineral mining which consists of titanium dioxide TiO2. Besides rutile, silica, ferromanganese, calcium or magnesium carbonates are also put in the coating. 
- Fluo-calcium electrode coatings consist of calcium and magnesium carbonates, fluor spar, ferroalloys.
- Organic electrode coatings consists of organic materials, usually oxycellulose to which slad-forming material, titanium dioxide, silicate etc. and ferromanganese (as deoxidizer and alloying agent) are added.

 

In order to create and maintain electric arc, electricity the sources of welding current is supplied to the electrode and welded part.  Under the influence of the heat of electric arc, edges of welded parts and electrode are melted, forming weldpool, which is in the molten state for some time.  In the weldpool electrode metal is mixed with molted metal of the products (basic metal), molted slag comes to the surface, forming the protective film.  Welded joint is formed when metal is hardened. Energy, necessary for forming and maintaining of electric arc is obtained special sources of  constant or lternating current. When welding with the help of constant current, welded joint is obtained with the smaller quantity of sparking, as there is no passes through zero and of the current polarity. 

Welding should be performed at the level that may guarantee long and accident-free object exploitation. The quality of the welding depends on the welder skill, the quality of the welding apparatus and the mark of the electrode that is used (the quality if the welded joint depends directly on the quality of the electrode that is used). 
The market is overloaded by electrodes of different markets and producers (to make the whole catalogue  - is almost impossible  task). The range is wide, but the difference in quality of the goods is essential as well.


 

 

ø, mm Current Function and field of usage

Electrodes -4

3,0
4,0
5,0
lternating current frm the transformer with voltage of open circuit less than 50V; constant current of any polarity 
For welding of constructions made of low-carbon steel (grades of steel St3, 10, 20 etc). Electrodes provide sound weld during welding at higher modes. They provide good formation of welded seam, high resistance of the seam metal against the formation of porosity and hot tears.

Electrodes -6

3,0
4,0
5,0
lternating current frm the transformer with voltage of open circuit less than 50V; constant current of any polarity 
For welding of constructions made of low carbon grades of steel St3, 10, 20 etc. Electrodes provide high resistance of seam metal against defect formation during welding of rust. They provide good formation of the welded seam, high resistance of the seam metal against the formation of porosity and hot tears.

Electrodes -21

2,0
2,5
3,0
 
lternating current frm the transformer with voltage of open circuit less than 50V; constant current of any polarity 
For welding of constructions made of low carbon grades of steel  St3,10,20 etc. They can be used for welding of water pipes and low pressure gas pipelines. They provide good welding and technological properties during welding frm small-size transformers: easy arc striking, leprose formation of seam metal, easy or spontaneous separability of slag crust. 

Electrodes -3

3,0
4,0
5,0
lternating current frm the transformer with voltage of open circuit less than 60V; constant current of reversed polarity 
For welding of constructions made of low carbon grades of steel St3, 10,20 etc. During welding at higher modes pores can be formed. Provide good formation  of the welded seam, high resistance  of the seam metal against the formation of porosity and hot tears.

Electrodes -13/55

3,0
4,0
5,0
Constant current of reversed polarity
For welding of important constructions made of carbon steel (08, 20, 20L, St3) and low-alloy (16 GC, 09G2C) steel, when increased demands towards plasticity and impact strength of  the metal seam are made, namely during work at low temperatures. They are sensitive to the porosity when there is rust and oil on the edges of welded parts and in case of increasing of the  arc distance.
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